구미출장안마◥예약금없는출장샵♪구미출장마사지{구미순천 중국 마사지}☈〔구미안동 마사지〕☶구미다방 티켓 썰╂구미카카오출장⇄구미출장오피☆구미편두통 마사지⇛구미안마방 가격

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

군산출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

구미출장안마✍예약U구미출장마사지{구미출장 서비스}ミ〔구미대딸〕♀구미광양 안마방♣구미자궁 마사지✡구미마사지 알바┭구미김원중 안마방┧구미세부 마사지 엑스트라

The governments of more than 190 nations 고성포항 아가씨 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

구미출장안마┗출장부르는법フ구미출장마사지{구미안마방 추천}♪〔구미모텔 출장마사지〕♫구미용산구 안마방»구미마사지 효과♪ 구미아로마 마사지 효능☃구미하남 안마방☢구미마사지 추천

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

구미출장안마✪출장부르는법⇦구미출장마사지{구미필리핀 마사지}×〔구미천안 안마방〕♢구미보령 안마방ロ구미안마방 찾기╦구미중국 대딸╛구미신림 아로마 마사지┆구미전주 타이 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 광주출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

구미출장안마﹄24시출장샵↚구미출장마사지{구미춘천 태국 마사지}♥〔구미카톡 출장 만남〕♝구미마사지 대딸❈구미모텔 전화⇎구미안마방 젤┲구미출장소이스τ구미타이마사지 불법

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 광양조건 만남 서울 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

구미출장안마▷예약금없는출장샵ⓞ구미출장마사지{구미질 마사지}✏〔구미수원 마사지 추천〕☆구미만남━구미타이 마사지 아로마┍구미다크서클 없애는 마사지⇉구미안마방 아쿠아✣구미대구 출장마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 천안출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

구미출장안마구미안마방 청룡열차

  • 제주발안 모텔
  • 구미안마방 첫경험
  • 구미출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    구미출장안마◄예약ア구미출장마사지{구미하단 마사지}▪〔구미출장맛사지〕➳구미진접 안마방↟구미역출장안마♠구미안마방 몰래▪구미에이스 안마방◐구미tumblr 모텔

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 대구일본 마사지 토렌트 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 평택출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    제주출장안마
    대전구월동 안마방 군산출장안마 포항안마방 내상
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    구미출장안마♭예약┉구미출장마사지{구미홍진호 안마방}─〔구미강북 안마방〕メ구미안마방 잠☏구미마포구 안마방フ구미장요근 마사지♫구미일본 마사지 av☣구미진영 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 전주안마방 인증 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    구미출장안마⇏24시출장샵✌구미출장마사지{구미광주 안마방}▶〔구미제천 마사지〕⇖구미여교사 마사지▥구미안마방 아영이➹구미성장판 마사지✓구미계룡시 안마방⊙구미부산 안마방 추천

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 전주출장안마 .

    강릉마사지 후기
    고령거제 안마방 carpanda.xyz 경산마사지 맛사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    구미출장안마⇠예약금없는출장샵ν구미출장마사지{구미잇몸 마사지}⇇〔구미대전 마사지〕╝구미안양 안마방[구미안마방 어플⇠구미안마방 감염ソ구미속초 모텔 가격✲구미부산마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 천안출장안마 .

    구미출장안마☀예약♤구미출장마사지{구미오창 마사지}♣〔구미양배추 안마방〕☒구미조건 만남 카톡サ구미변비 마사지➛구미마사지 torrent┏구미서면 안마방♟구미콜걸만남

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 광주출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 태백안마방 혼자 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    구미출장안마↱예약금없는출장샵ω구미출장마사지{구미광진구 안마방}ξ〔구미천안 안마방 후기〕☈구미모텔 찌라시►구미남성전용 마사지☰구미전립선 마사지 썰♚구미도봉구 안마방▬구미전립선 마사지 tumblr

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    구미출장안마§24시출장샵↺구미출장마사지{구미광진구 안마방}⊙〔구미대구 마사지 추천〕ス구미부산 안마방 추천►구미아중리 안마방☼구미호치민 마사지↢구미안마방 20살◐구미울산 안마방 추천

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 창녕대전 유성 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The loveganghwa.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 서울출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 진도안마방 하늘이 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 대전출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    구미출장안마ェ24시출장샵⇗구미출장마사지{구미아로마 마사지 뜻}⇏〔구미구미 안마방〕✚구미구리 마사지◊구미서울출장안마✿구미여성 전용 마사지 알바↡구미국산_신작_안마방㊣구미마사지 야동

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 포항출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대구출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    구미출장안마❄예약╧구미출장마사지{구미사당역 안마방}♜〔구미ace anma〕↕구미마사지 관리사◦구미출장만족보장♪구미엄지 눈 근육 마사지❤구미승모근 마사지┝구미창동 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    고창역곡 마사지
    수원출장안마 완주송우리 안마방 바카라사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    구미출장안마↟예약♨구미출장마사지{구미이천 마사지}♪〔구미tumblr 모텔〕➸구미유두 마사지♬구미마사지 섹스▬구미성기 마사지⇉구미광양 마사지↠구미video.fc2.com 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.구미출장안마구미베트남 하노이 마사지λ구미포항 모텔 추천◎〔구미목동 마사지〕구미안마╬구미신설동 안마방╇구미안마방 위치チ구미연동 안마방☈포항출장안마출장부르는법구미타이 출장 마사지↘구미서귀포 안마방♚《구미대구 사우나 마사지》구미군산 터미널 모텔❈구미전기 마사지▒구미일산 안마방 가격☻구미출장 타이마사지╝구미출장안마횡성전립선 마사지 방법구미러브어게인 만남┛구미인천안마レ﹝구미한국 안마방﹞구미연산동 마사지┴구미거제도 모텔 추천♞구미안구 마사지❀구미눈 마사지▣구미jav 마사지☪구미순천 안마방♛(구미강서구청 마사지)구미캄보디아 마사지◑구미홍방장 안마방↕구미안마방 가격キ구미마사지 썰┣구미민락동 마사지♨구미중국 안마방☈【구미우에하라 아이 마사지】구미송파 안마방☒구미베트남 마사지 가격♧구미하마사키 마오 마사지▷구미경주 마사지⇜구미출장 안마ホ구미유선 마사지“〔구미마사지 추천〕구미안마방 커뮤니티↗구미신림 안마방◈구미수지 안마방⇢구미출장색시미녀언니レ예약금없는출장샵충주사가정 마사지예약구미잇몸 마사지〓구미용인 안마방╈〖구미국산 안마방 몰카〗구미고잔동 마사지☼구미안면 비대칭 마사지▨구미괌 마사지⇔구미안마방 번호➚구미출장안마구미출장안마대전출장안마구미불광동 마사지구미장한평 안마방구미마사지 ssul구미김해 장유 안마방구미출장안마구미마사지 자격증ホ구미안마방 전화번호☠「구미황제 마사지」구미텀블러 여관☃구미승모근 마사지↖구미안마방 왕가슴녀╔구미출장 만남 대행ラ대구세븐 상추 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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